The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections


The author(s) received no specific funding for this work.


Pneumonia is a common lung infection with significant morbidity and mortality. Currently, the diagnosis of pneumonia is made by patient history confirmed with chest radiograph or computed tomography. These modalities, however, have limitations including low accuracy, radiation exposure, and high cost. Lung ultrasound has become more prevalent in evaluating pulmonary conditions and has shown to be highly accurate in the diagnosis of pneumonia. The purpose of this review is to discuss sonographic findings associated with pneumonia, techniques used to obtain quality images, and the evidence in literature supporting the use of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of pneumonia. Numerous studies including meta-analysis have shown lung ultrasound to be highly accurate compared to chest radiographs. With proper techniques, lung ultrasound may be a promising alternative to chest radiographs and chest tomography in the diagnosis of pneumonia.



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

normal_lungsliding_1_1.mp4 (1158 kB)
This video shows normal lung sliding as the visceral pleura rubs against the parietal pleura. ‘*’ indicates the pleural line and ‘R’ indicates rib and its shadow.1.

lungconsolidation_2.mp4 (1436 kB)
2. This video shows lung consolidation indicated by ‘C’. With respiration, some B lines appear as well, which can be seen in early pneumonia.

blines_1.mp4 (1146 kB)
3. This video shows multiple B lines indicating interstitial syndrome. Here, pleural effusion is present.

empyema_1.mp4 (581 kB)
4. This video shows empyema with multiple septations of the right lower lobe.



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