The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections


Introduction: Viruses have always been a major cause of various disastrous pandemics in mankind’s history. H1N1 became a threat when its original strain was first discovered back in the swine flu pandemic of 2009. It became highly catastrophic on a large scale because none of the therapeutic interventions and methodologies that were already present at the time were effective against the virus.

Methods: A vast amount of literature and research is available regarding H1N1 influenza from different reputable sources online. The data was gathered following the contrasting and relative situations of 1918 as well as the 2009 pandemic in mind. The overall extracted material provides comprehensive insights into the ups and downs of H1N1 influenza from 1918 up to 2009.

Results: H1N1 virus comprises of a huge potential to cause a pandemic of Influenza type A. The illness caused by the virus has a varying degree of severity depending on the immune function of the individual being under attack. The virus exploits droplet-based transmission mode for its spread from one host to another. The major center of escalation of the subtypes of virus mostly originates from different avian and swine species. Most notably subtypes H9N2 and H5N1 of influenza A, which aren’t easily transmissible among humans. Furthermore, the droplet-based transmission takes comparably less time to infect a population of thousands if not millions. This ultimately increases the overall death toll by several folds by initiating a constant wave of pro-inflammatory cytokine release among affected hosts.

Conclusions: Since its discovery in 2009, researchers have developed antiviral drugs and vaccines to fight the virus, most of which have proven to be very successful in treating the interconnected complications. The present-day strategies are only efficacious until the current strains of influenza A do not produce resistance against these drugs. All the therapeutic techniques and methodologies that have been developed to confront the virus up until now have been described in this ample review.


The author(s) received no specific funding for this work



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