Document Type


Publication Date

Fall 2020


Student Research Opportunities Program


Most language inequality for infants begins very early in their development. For most, this disparity develops prior to 36 months (Farkus & Baron, 2000).

• Significant disparities in vocabulary size between socioeconomic status (SES) were evident by 18 months. By 24 months, there was a 6 month age gap (Fernald et al, 2011).

• 65% of low SES preschoolers in head start programs had clinically significant language delays (Ramey and Ramey, 2004)

• Maternal education is a known indicator of SES and is correlated with language input for infants (Dollaghan et al. 1999).

• At 18 months, most infants experience “word spurts” and an increase in expressive vocabulary (Reznick & Goldfield, 1992).

Research Question: Are SES (maternal education) and expressive vocabulary related in Kentucky families during the COVID pandemic?

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