Salma Hegazi

Date on Paper


Document Type

Doctoral Paper

Degree Name




Committee Chair

Anderson, Debra

Committee Member

Volpert, Elisabeth

Author's Keywords

Pneumonia; pneumonia vaccination; long-term care facility; nursing home; clinical staff; nursing home acquired pneumonia


Background: Pneumonia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents (Stamm et al., 2020). Vaccination of LTCF residents is a reasonable prevention strategy, (Andre et al., 2018; Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 2020; Kaiser Family Foundation, 2019). Improving immunization rates among LTCF residents remains to be a challenge (Rehm et al., 2012; Stamm et al., 2020).

Purpose: The purpose of this quality improvement (Q.I.) project is to improve the pneumococcal pneumonia immunization rates at an LTCF in Louisville, KY.

Methods: A review of each residents' medical record to obtain immunization status, evaluating the LTCF's policy for pneumonia immunization, and educational sessions presented to the clinical staff that provides direct care to the residents. A pre/post-survey design was used to evaluate the change in knowledge. Descriptive and frequency statistics, a paired t-test, and a chi-squared (x2) statistical test of independence were used to analyze data.

Results: From February 1, 2021, to June 30, 2021, medical records of 95 residents of an LTCF was evaluated and 26 clinical staff members participated in the education intervention. The findings revealed the LTCF’s initial pneumonia immunization rate to be 59% and a post intervention pneumonia immunization rate of 94%. The findings revealed a statistically significant increase in overall knowledge (p = < .001), with a mean pre-survey score of 71.77 (SD= 8.738) and a mean post-survey score of 100 (SD= .000). The findings revealed a statistically significant relationship between the residents’ whose immunization status screened on admission to the LTCF and residents who had received a pneumonia vaccination, (p < .001).

Conclusion: Due to a small sample size, results cannot be generalized. The results from this project still showed that an educational session about pneumonia and pneumonia vaccination.

improved the pneumonia immunization rate of an LTCF. Studies included in the literature review have shown that educational interventions are a reasonable means of dismantling barriers and improving immunization rates in high-risk populations.

Included in

Nursing Commons