Date on Master's Thesis/Doctoral Dissertation


Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation

Degree Name

Ph. D.

Department (Legacy)

Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology

Committee Chair

Kirby, Kathleen M.

Author's Keywords

Comorbidity; Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Gender; Internalizing; Externalizing


Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder


This study examined the association between internalizing and externalizing symptoms, gender, and the diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Participants included 104 males and 74 females, aged 6 to 16 from a diagnostic clinic. Parents and teachers completed the Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale, Second Edition (ADDES-2) to determine whether they met the criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) in order to measure internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Regression analyses indicated partial support for association between inattention and internalizing symptoms, with higher ratings of inattention found for both anxiety and depression as rated by parents and higher ratings of inattention for depression as rated by school. Although not predicted, a positive association was also found between home and school rated hyperactivity and depression. As hypothesized, higher ratings of hyperactivity in the home environment were predictive of all three externalizing behaviors as rated by parents, including measures of aggression, hyperactivity, and conduct problems, but only teacher ratings of hyperactivity. In addition, hyperactivity in the school environment was predictive of all teacher ratings of aggression, hyperactivity and conduct problems and only aggression as rated by parents. All parent and teacher ratings of externalizing behaviors showed significantly higher scores for males. On measures of internalizing symptoms, no significant relationships were found with gender and parent and teacher ratings on inattention and hyperactivity, other than in the area of teacher ratings of somatization. These results have important implications in terms of identification, treatment, and long-term outcomes of affected individuals.