# Applications of the Combinatorial Nullstellensatz on bipartite graphs.

5-2009

## Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation

Ph. D.

Mathematics

Kezdy, Andre

## Author's Keywords

Combinatorial Nullstellensatz; Bipartite graphs; Perfect matchings

## Subject

Combinatorial analysis; Bipartite graphs

## Abstract

The Combinatorial Nullstellensatz can be used to solve certain problems in combinatorics. However, one of the major complications in using the Combinatorial Nullstellensatz is ensuring that there exists a nonzero monomial. This dissertation looks at applying the Combinatorial Nullstellensatz to finding perfect matchings in bipartite graphs. The first two chapters provide background material covering topics such as linear algebra, group theory, graph theory and even the discrete Fourier transform. New results start in the third chapter, showing that the Combinatorial Nullstellensatz can be used to solve the problem of finding perfect matchings in bipartite graphs. Using the Combinatorial Nullstellensatz also allows for a vice use of matroid intersection to find the nonzero monomial. By also applying the uncertainty principle, the number of perfect matchings in a bipartite graph can be bound. The fourth chapter examines properties of the polynomials created in the use of the Combinatorial Nullstellensatz to find perfect matchings in bipartite graphs. Many of the properties of the polynomials have analogous properties for the transforms of the polynomials, which are also examined. These properties often relate back to the structure of the graph which gave rise to the polynomial. The fifth chapter provides an application of the results. Since finding a nonzero monomial can be difficult and the polynomials created in this dissertation give polynomials with such a nonzero monomial the application shows how certain polynomials can be rewritten in terms of the matching polynomials. Such a rewriting may permit an easy method to find a nonzero monomial so that the Combinatorial Nullstellensatz can be applied to the polynomial. Finally, the fifth chapter concludes with some open problems that may be areas of further research.

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