Date on Master's Thesis/Doctoral Dissertation


Document Type

Master's Thesis

Degree Name



Health and Sport Sciences

Degree Program

Exercise Physiology, MS

Committee Chair

Zavorsky, Gerald S.

Committee Co-Chair (if applicable)

Symons, Brock

Committee Member

Harms, Craig A.


Swimmers--Training of; Breathing exercises; Respiration; Oxygen--Physiological effect


Running economy (RE) is the amount of oxygen consumed while running at a submaximal intensity. Along with aerobic capacity (VO2max), RE is an important predictor of running performance. Little research has investigated changes in RE with restricted breathing training [i.e. controlled breath-holding (CFB)] during exercise. RE may improve ~6% amongst a novice swimming cohort through CFB training, but this has not been established in elite swimmers. The purpose was to further establish that CFB training (16 sessions of 12 x 50-m with ~15 seconds rest between each 50-m, using only ~2 breaths per 50-m) can improve RE in 25 elite college swimmers. CFB training did not alter RE. The day-to-day variability in RE (mL/kg/km), energy cost (kcal/kg/km), and VO2max (L/min) was between 2.4 – 3.4%. There was no association between RE (range = 182 to 224 mL/kg/min) and 200 yard freestyle swimming performance (range = 104 to 129 seconds).