Date on Master's Thesis/Doctoral Dissertation


Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation

Degree Name

Ph. D.


Counseling and Human Development

Degree Program

Counseling and Personnel Services, PhD

Committee Chair

Hooper, Lisa

Committee Co-Chair (if applicable)

Tomek, Sara

Committee Member

Tomek, Sara

Committee Member

Washington, Ahmad

Committee Member

Woo, Hongryun


This dissertation study is an examination of the relation between school pushout and future outlook for Black youth. Theoretically, this dissertation study is framed by Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model (Bronfenbrenner, 1977) and Racial Encounter Coping Appraisal and Socialization Theory (RECAST). In light of the systemic racial disparities entrenched in school pushout phenomena among Black youth, the researcher sought to explore parental warmth as a protective factor for youth subjected to school pushout. School pushout as praxis was discussed in conjunction with the school-toprison pipeline (STPP), as school pushout is identified as an entry point within the STPP. This dissertation study explored a sample (N = 1728) of Black youth, ages 13-17, who participated in the last wave of the Mobile Youth Survey (MYS). Approximately 85% (n =1465) of the sample experienced school pushout. The sample was equally divided regarding gender. Regression analyses revealed that (a) there was an indirect relation between school pushout and future outlook and (b) parental warmth did not moderate the relation between school pushout and future outlook; however, (c) when age and gender were added to the model, parental warmth moderated the relation between school pushout and future outlook.