Date on Master's Thesis/Doctoral Dissertation


Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation

Degree Name

Ph. D.


Counseling and Human Development

Degree Program

Counseling and Personnel Services, PhD

Committee Chair

Pössel, Patrick

Committee Co-Chair (if applicable)

Hopkins, Katy

Committee Member

Hopkins, Katy

Committee Member

Demaray, Michelle

Committee Member

Malecki, Christine

Author's Keywords

teaching behavior; high school; depression; affect; longitudinal


Previous empirical studies demonstrate a cross-sectional association between teaching behaviors and students’ positive and negative affect and depressive symptoms. However, only one study comprised only of middle school students has examined the temporal direction of these associations, meaning the temporal direction of associations for high school students remains unclear. Therefore, this two-wave study with high school students investigated the temporal direction of the associations between teaching behaviors and students’ positive and negative affect. Participating students from one public high school (N = 188; 88.8% White; 69.7% female) completed the Teaching Behavior Questionnaire and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale for Children. As predicted, results of several Hierarchical Linear Models found that organizational teaching behavior and positive and negative affect were not significantly associated with each other in either direction. Somewhat but not entirely consistent with the hypotheses, negative teaching behavior at wave 1 was positively and marginally significantly associated with negative affect at wave 2. Contrary to the hypotheses, instructional teaching behavior at wave 1 was positively associated with positive affect at wave 2. Teachers, administrators, and school psychologists may benefit from these findings, as they may help teachers adapt how they interact with students and give instruction in the classroom. Further, teachers and school psychologists should be aware of how each entity’s behavior may influence the other. Limitations, future directions, and implications of the study are discussed.