Date on Master's Thesis/Doctoral Dissertation


Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation

Degree Name

Ph. D.


Industrial Engineering

Degree Program

Industrial Engineering, PhD

Committee Chair

Bai, Lihui

Committee Co-Chair (if applicable)

Alexander, Suraj

Committee Member

Alexander, Suraj

Committee Member

Gerber, Erin

Committee Member

Chang, Dar-Jen

Author's Keywords

electric vehicle; charging demand; location


This thesis describes a study of a novel concept of hybrid electric vehicle charging stations in which two types of services are offered: battery swapping and fast level-3 DC charging. The battery swapping and fast-charging service are modeled by using the M/G/s/s model and the M/G/s/$\infty$ model, respectively. In particular, we focus on the operations of joint battery swapping and fast charging services, develop four joint locations and inventory models: two for the deployment of battery swapping service, two for the deployment of hybrid electric vehicle charging service. The first model for each deployment system considers a service-level constraint for battery swapping and hybrid charging service, whereas the second for each deployment system considers total sojourn time in stations. The objective of all four models is to minimize total facility setup cost plus battery and supercharger purchasing cost. The service level, which is calculated by the Erlang loss function, depends on the stockout probability for batteries with enough state of charge (SOC) for the battery swapping service and the risk of running out of superchargers for the quick charging service. The total sojourn time is defined as the sum of the service time and the waiting time in the station. Metaheuristic algorithms using a Tabu search are developed to tackle the proposed nonlinear mixed-integer optimization model. Computational results on randomly generated instances and on a real-world case comprised of 714,000 households show the efficacy of proposed models and algorithms.