Date on Master's Thesis/Doctoral Dissertation


Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation

Degree Name

Ph. D.


Elementary, Middle & Secondary Teacher Education

Degree Program

Curriculum and Instruction, PhD

Committee Chair

Mark, Sheron

Committee Co-Chair (if applicable)

Bay-Williams, Jennifer

Committee Member

Bay-Williams, Jennifer

Committee Member

Peters, Susan

Committee Member

Keaton, Ajhanai

Author's Keywords

mathematics; identity; mathematics education; intervention; BIPOC


This dissertation examines mathematics education's past and present state in the United States, emphasizing mathematics intervention instruction. This dissertation includes a complex and critical analysis of intervention practices and historical and structural inequities based on race present in these interventions and mathematics education. In combination, it examines the construct of mathematics identities, their role in student success with mathematics, and trends surrounding mathematics education and its impact on populations of students of color. Using Critical Race Theory as an underlying framework and Critical Counter-Narrative as a methodology, it argues a need for marginalized student voices to be present in the research surrounding mathematics intervention practices and mathematics identity research. Additionally, it argues that student perspectives will push for improvement and equity in the mathematics intervention system. This dissertation includes five chapters. Chapter One outlines the problems present in mathematics education in the United States, with a focus on the racial disparity in the quality of mathematics instruction. In addition, the first chapter introduces the concept of intervention delivery models, explicitly looking at tiered systems. Chapter Two focuses on the origins of interventions and the delivery frameworks, including Response to Intervention. In addition, it describes interventions that are widely used and critique each. Mathematics identity research and mathematics teaching practices that enhance positive identity development are overviewed. The racial disparity and racism within U.S. mathematics education are also discussed, and key literature is reviewed. Chapter Two also describes Critical Race Theory and its application to educational research. Chapters One and Two focus more on building the theoretical foundations and argument for exploring the impact of mathematics intervention practices on student mathematics identity development. Chapter Three focuses on the methodology of Critical Counter-Narrative, the application to exploring student mathematics identities, and the perceived potential impact of mathematics intervention practices on such identities. Chapter Four identifies the findings from this project, including the presentation of the Counter-Narratives of the student participants. Chapter Five links the results from the student Counter-Narratives to more significant implications for future research and potentially needed changes to current mathematics intervention practices.