Date on Master's Thesis/Doctoral Dissertation


Document Type

Master's Thesis

Degree Name



Industrial Engineering

Degree Program

Industrial Engineering, MS

Committee Chair

Aqlan, Faisal

Committee Member

Saleem, Jason

Committee Member

DeCaro, Marci

Author's Keywords

Team effectiveness; virtual reality; virtual reality teams; group dynamics; recurrence quantification analysis; data envelopment analysis


Virtual Reality (VR) technology has revolutionized the study of team effectiveness, yet many studies in this domain lack a comprehensive approach, focusing narrowly on performance metrics. This thesis investigates VR team effectiveness by integrating traditional Team Effectiveness frameworks with VR-specific dynamics. Utilizing Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Group Style Inventory (GSI), this study assesses teams within a VR environment, specifically a multiplayer submarine simulation game, IronWolfVR. Fifteen groups, totaling 45 participants, were observed for their collaborative gameplay, incorporating physiological measures (Heart Rate and Electrodermal Activity), team coordination dynamics, and various survey-based assessments (demographics, System Usability Scale, Simulator Sickness Questionnaire, and a team performance perception survey). The study's methodology involved recording team physiological responses and coordination dynamics during the gameplay, followed by administering surveys to evaluate various aspects of team interaction and individual experiences. These data were analyzed using DEA to evaluate team efficiency and GSI for team effectiveness. Efficiency and effectiveness rankings were correlated with physiological measures, reported VR v cybersickness levels, system usability scores, and emergent behavioral styles, providing a comprehensive view of team dynamics in VR. The findings demonstrate that team effectiveness in VR is a multifaceted construct, influenced by a combination of team inputs, processes, outputs, and dynamics specific to the VR environment. Efficiency and effectiveness cluster analysis revealed insightful trends across various metrics. The study's integration of DEA and GSI offers a nuanced understanding of VR team performance, challenging previous reductionist approaches and highlighting the complex interplay of factors contributing to team effectiveness in VR. These insights pave the way for future research, emphasizing the need for a holistic approach to studying team effectiveness in emerging technological contexts.