Date on Master's Thesis/Doctoral Dissertation


Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation

Degree Name

Ph. D.

Department (Legacy)

Department of Teaching and Learning

Committee Chair

Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

Author's Keywords

Mathematics intervention; Technology; Computer assisted instruction; Fidelity of implementation; Struggling students


Mathematics--Computer-assisted instruction; Mathematics--Study and teaching; Special education--Mathematics


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different instructional types used in a mathematics intervention setting. In recent years, school staff have implemented mathematics intervention programs to aid struggling students and improve student achievement. Advancements in technology have enticed many school staff to purchase computer-based instructional products that are used for mathematics intervention. Often computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is the only mathematics intervention students receive, however staff in the school of this study used a structured curriculum (SC) along with CAI Therefore, this study examined the effects of CAI compared to a SC delivered by a teacher. This study used a three-group pre/post-test design, which examined the effects of CAI, SC, and CAI with SC on mathematics achievement and students' attitudes towards mathematics. The follow research questions guided data analyses: 1) Is there a significant instructional type effect on mathematics achievement? 2) Is there a significant instructional type effect on mathematics attitude? 3) What is the factor structure of mathematics attitude scores of struggling learners? Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed no statistically significant instructional type effects on mathematics achievement or attitude towards mathematics. However, factor analyses of pre-survey attitude scores revealed a factor structure different from the one found in current research. Meanwhile, factor analyses of post attitude survey scores resulted in a factor structure resembling that found in current literature, which suggested a shift in struggling students' mathematics attitude structures after they participated in mathematics intervention. The results of this study provided information about how school leaders and administrators can design and implement mathematics intervention programs as well as the role of CAI in intervention programs. Additionally, lapses in fidelity of program implementation may have influenced results of the study and provide recommendations for teacher professional development and monitoring in order to maintain high levels of fidelity when implementing an intervention program. Finally, the results of this study suggested that struggling learners' attitude structure might be different than that of students in the larger population. The researcher discussed implications these differences may have on the design of mathematics intervention programs.