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Counseling and Human Development


A central component of Beck, A. T., Rush, J., & Shaw, B. F. [(1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press] cognitive theory of depression is the cognitive triad (negative view of self, world, and future) measurable with the Cognitive Triad Inventory (CTI). This study examined the psychometric properties and factor structure of the German CTI in a sample of 796 German volunteers. The study provides evidence for the reliability and validity of the German CTI and of independent positive and negative elements of the cognitive triad. Furthermore, results emphasize methodological above conceptual problems in Beck et al.'s (1979) theory as cause for instabilities in the CTI's factor structure across different studies.

Original Publication Information

This is the peer-reviewed version of the following article:

Pössel, Patrick. "Cognitive Triad Inventory (CTI): Psychometric properties and factor structure of the German translation." 2009. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 40(2): 240–247.

which was published in final form at: