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Counseling and Human Development


We explored the associations between student-perceived teaching behaviors and negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in upper elementary age students, both before and after controlling for perceived parenting behaviors. The Teaching Behavior Questionnaire (TBQ), the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ), and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children (PANAS-C) were completed by 777 third to fifth graders in nine elementary schools. Using two-level hierarchical linear model analyses, we found that (a) perceived instructional teaching behavior was negatively associated with NA and positively associated with PA; (b) perceived organizational behavior was not associated with either; (c) perceived socio-emotional teaching behavior was positively associated with both; (d) perceived negative teaching behavior was positively associated with NA but not associated with PA. When parenting behaviors were controlled for, the associations with NA but not with PA held up. We discuss implications of the findings for education and mental health personnel.


This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Early Child Development and Care on 6/8/2016, available online:

Original Publication Information

Barnard, Allison D., Jill L. Adelson and Patrick Pössel. "Associations Between Perceived Teaching Behaviors and Affect in Upper Elementary School Students." 2016. Early Child Development and Care published online 08 Jun 2016.