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Counseling and Human Development


Depression and hopelessness predict myocardial infarction (MI), but it is unclear whether depression and hopelessness are independent predictors of MI incidents. Hopelessness, depression, and MI incidence rate 18 years later were measured in 2005 men. Cox regressions were conducted with hopelessness and depression serving as individual predictors of MI. Another Cox model examined whether the two predictors predict MI when adjusting for each other. Depression and hopelessness predicted MI in independent regressions but when adjusting for each other, hopelessness, but not depression, predicted MI incidents. Thus, these results suggest that depression and hopelessness are not independent predictors of MI.


The final version of this paper has been published in Journal of Health Psychology, 20/1, January/2015 by SAGE Publications Ltd, All rights reserved. © The Authors, 2015. It is available at:

Original Publication Information

Pössel, Patrick, Amanda M. Mitchell, Kimmo Ronkainen, George A. Kaplan, Jussi Kauhanen and Maarit Valtonen. "Do Depressive Symptoms Predict the Incidence of Myocardial Infarction Independent of Hopelessness?" 2015. Journal of Health Psychology 20(1): 60-68.