Document Type


Publication Date



Political Science


This article explores the impact of race, gender, age, and intersectionality on attorneys’ perceptions of unfair treatment by other lawyers and on satisfaction with their legal careers. Using an original survey of over 2,000 attorneys, ordered logit is utilized to analyze attorneys’ perceptions of disparate treatment based on race, gender, and age and to test whether minority female attorneys face unique barriers within their professional relationships. We find that minority women are more likely than others to perceive unfair treatment based on race, gender, and age. This also contributes to lower career satisfaction for attorneys who are women of color than for other groups. The findings have important implications for understanding attorney relationships and potential barriers for minority groups within a profession’s culture. These obstacles not only impact attorneys, but could also influence attorney choice for citizens and the prospects for a representative judiciary.

Original Publication Information

This is the peer reviewed version of the following article:

Collins, Todd A., Tao L. Dumas, and Laura P. Moyer. "Intersecting Disadvantages: Race, Gender, and Age Discrimination Among Attorneys." 2017. Social Science Quarterly 98(5): 1642-1658.

which has been published in final form at

This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions.