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Physics and Astronomy


Using a sample of 472 local Universe (z < 0.06) galaxies in the stellar mass range 10.25 < logM*/M⊙ < 10.75, we explore the variation in galaxy structure as a function of morphology and galaxy colour. Our sample of galaxies is subdivided into red, green, and blue colour groups and into elliptical and non-elliptical (disk-type) morphologies. Using Kilo- Degree Survey (KiDS) and Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) Kilo-Degree Infrared Galaxy Survey (VIKING) derived postage stamp images, a group of eight volunteers visually classified bars, rings, morphological lenses, tidal streams, shells, and signs of merger activity for all systems. We find a significant surplus of rings (2.3s) and lenses (2.9s) in disk-type galaxies as they transition across the green valley. Combined, this implies a joint ring/lens green valley surplus significance of 3.3s relative to equivalent disk-types within either the blue cloud or the red sequence. We recover a bar fraction of ~44 per cent which remains flat with colour, however, we find that the presence of a bar acts to modulate the incidence of rings and (to a lesser extent) lenses, with rings in barred disk-type galaxies more common by ~20-30 percentage points relative to their unbarred counterparts, regardless of colour. Additionally, green valley disk-type galaxies with a bar exhibit a significant 3.0s surplus of lenses relative to their blue/red analogues. The existence of such structures rules out violent transformative events as the primary end-of-life evolutionary mechanism, with a more passive scenario the favoured candidate for the majority of galaxies rapidly transitioning across the green valley.