The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Guidelines for Authors

Thank you for considering the Journal of Respiratory Infections for your manuscript. The following are guidelines for the preparation of manuscripts to submit to our journal.

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Peer review

Original research, review articles, case reports, methodologies, and study protocols are peer-reviewed, i.e., they are sent to at least two experts in the field with which the manuscript is concerned, who provide a recommendation to the Editors-in-Chief to accept, request revisions as described in the reviewer's comments, or reject the manuscript. Reviewers are external collaborators, not affiliated with the Journal of Respiratory Infections.

All other article types are single-reviewed, i.e., they are reviewed only by the Editors-in-Chief, without the input of external collaborators.

Article types and structure

The Journal of Respiratory Infections (JRI) accepts the following article types for submission:

  1. Original Research (peer-reviewed)

    Description and analysis of a scientific study pertaining to respiratory infections and conducted by the authors. While the primary focus of the Journal is clinical and epidemiological research, laboratory studies, diagnostic studies, and secondary data analyses are welcome, provided that they concern infections of the respiratory tract.

    Randomized and nonrandomized clinical trials must conform to CONSORT and TREND standards, respectively. Animal research must conform to ARRIVE guidelines. Authors are encouraged, but not required, to use the STROBE guidelines for reporting observational studies.

    Structure: Abstract, Introduction, Methods*, Results, Discussion

    *Methods section should indicate IRB approval or exemption (including IRB no.) when applicable for research involving human or animal subjects.

  2. Review Article (peer-reviewed)

    Substantive review and analysis of recent research in a clinical or epidemiological field related to respiratory infections.

    Systematic reviews, scoping reviews, and meta-analyses must conform to PRISMA standards. Manuscripts that describe themselves as systematic reviews but fail to meet the PRISMA criteria—as determined by the Kornhauser Health Sciences Library—will be immediately rejected before reaching peer review.

    Structure: for systematic reviews, etc., see relevant PRISMA guidelines. For narrative reviews, structure at authors’ discretion.

  3. Case Report (peer-reviewed)

    Description of a clinical case concerning respiratory infection(s), particularly one involving an unusual presentation or treatment, which will be instructive for clinicians in the field. Authors are encouraged, but not required, to use the CARE reporting guidelines for case reports.

    Structure: Abstract, Introduction, Case Description*, Discussion

    *Reporting of patient specific information must be in compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), as well as all applicable regulations in place where the patient was treated (see Human subjects protection below. A blank copy of same form used to consent patient must be provided in lieu of IRB approval number.

  4. Methodology (peer-reviewed)

    Report of the development and/or implementation of a test, method, or process that advances beyond those previously available in the field of respiratory infections. Approach section should describe the method in sufficient detail to facilitate replication. Results section should describe the outcomes of testing and/or implementation. Discussion should include lessons learned from the process.

    Structure: Abstract, Introduction, Approach, Results, Discussion

  5. Study Protocol (peer-reviewed)

    Protocol for an original research study in the field of respiratory infection(s). Protocols for interventional trials must conform to SPIRIT guidelines. Protocols for systematic reviews (and meta-analyses) must conform to PRISMA-P guidelines.

    Structure: for interventional trials, see SPIRIT guidelines. For systematic reviews, see PRISMA-P guidelines. For other study types, structure at authors’ discretion.

  6. Brief Review

    Concise review and analysis of recent research on a clinical or epidemiological topic within the field of respiratory infections, for which limited evidence exists in the medical literature.

    Structure: at discretion of author(s)

  7. Brief Communication

    A short report of original research data concerning infection(s) of the respiratory tract.

    Structure: Abstract, Introduction, Methods*, Results, Discussion

    *Methods section should indicate IRB approval or exemption (including IRB no.) when applicable for research involving human or animal subjects.

  8. Multimedia

    Research or educational material related to respiratory infections in a format other than that of a traditional journal article. Multimedia previously published in the Journal of Respiratory Infections includes lectures, podcasts, and radiographs.

    Structure: at discretion of author(s).

  9. Editorial

    Communication from editorial staff concerning the updates, policies, and procedures of the Journal of Respiratory Infections or commentary from an editor or invited external author regarding a manuscript published in the Journal. Unsolicited editorials will be rejected immediately; see Correspondence below for unsolicited commentary.

    Structure: at discretion of author(s).

  10. Patient Management Article

    A single clinical case presentation involving infection(s) of the respiratory tract with an explanation and discussion of the diagnosis, presented as a dialogue between physicians. Cases presented should be instructive, i.e., illustrative of a significant issue in the clinical management of patients with respiratory infections.

    Structure: Abstract, Introduction, Case Presentation, Discussion

  11. Opinion Piece

    A personal point of view addressing a clinical or epidemiological management issue for which there is little or no evidence in the literature. Opinion pieces should be as objective as possible in the face of limited evidence, ideally explaining a hypothesis and calling for research or other medical intervention in the area. While authors may reference relevant public health policy or legislation, the Journal of Respiratory Infections will not publish partisan political viewpoints.

    Structure: at discretion of author(s).

  12. Perspective Piece

    Authors’ perspective and experience, providing insight into a novel or under-discussed aspect of the clinical or epidemiological management of respiratory infections, such as the development of new protocols under the circumstances of a respiratory virus pandemic.

    Structure: at discretion of author(s).

  13. Correspondence

    Commentary from an external author regarding a manuscript published in the Journal. Authors of the original manuscript will be shown the correspondence in advance and invited to write a reply to be published along with it.

    Structure: unstructured (no headings).

Summary of required/recommended reporting guidelines

Submission type


Reporting guideline


Original research/Brief communication

Randomized clinical trial



Nonrandomized clinical trial



Observational study



Animal study



Review article

Systematic review



Case report

Case report



Study protocol

Clinical trial protocol



Systematic review protocol



Human subjects protection

All research submitted to the Journal of Respiratory Infections must be in compliance with all applicable laws, both in the USA and in any other country or countries in which the research occurred, for the protection of human subjects and their confidential health information. All human subjects research must be conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki (2013). Approval or waiver, as appropriate, by an institutional review board or equivalent must be secured prior to implementation of research practices involving human subjects and reported in the submitted manuscript.

Identifying information (e.g., names, initials, hospital numbers) must be omitted from all manuscripts unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient or parent/guardian has been shown the manuscript and provides written informed consent for publication.

Animal subjects protection

All research submitted to the Journal of Respiratory Infections must be incompliance with all applicable laws, both in the USA and in any other country or countries in which the research occurred, for the protection of animal subjects. All animal subjects research must be conducted in accordance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 8th edition (2011).

Manuscript submission system

JRI uses ThinkIR, the institutional repository of the University of Louisville, for manuscript submission and peer review. Only invited submissions will be considered by email or mail. Technical assistance for ThinkIR is available by phone at (502) 852-8788 and via email at thinkIR@louisville.edu. Each submission is assigned a four-digit manuscript tracking number, which will appear in the e-mail that confirms your submission has been received. Please provide this tracking number on any correspondence regarding the manuscript.

Authors will be asked to upload several distinct files through ThinkIR:

  • Cover letter (either entered as text or uploaded to the cover letter area).

  • Manuscript file (uploaded as main document).

  • Supplemental material, if applicable:

    • Additional figure files

    • Appendices

    • Copy of patient consent (for Case Report)

    • Permissions

Images must be both inserted into the manuscript file (to simplify the review process) and uploaded separately to the submission system as individual files (to ensure quality in publication). Higher quality or otherwise altered images may be requested from authors in the event that figures are blurred or unclear.

Authors must obtain permission for any graphics that are not of their own creation before submission. All non-original graphics must be cited and described as such in their respective legends. It is the responsibility of the submitting authors to ensure that proper credit/attribution is given in accordance both with the policies of the original publisher and/or copyright license and with all applicable intellectual property law. Note that both private publishers (e.g., Elsevier) and copyright licenses (e.g., Creative Commons) have minimum reporting requirements and/or specified verbiage that must be included for legal reuse.

Cover letter

The cover letter may be uploaded as a separate file or typed directly into the submission form. It should be addressed to the Editors-in-Chief and must include the following:

  • The title of the manuscript.

  • A brief (1–2 sentences) summary of the manuscript’s content.

  • Declaration that the content is the authors’ original work and does not duplicate similar manuscripts published or under consideration at any other journal.*

  • Declaration that all listed authors made a significant contribution to the manuscript (as described in the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors [ICMJE] criteria) and accept responsibility for its contents.

  • Declaration of conflict of interest.

  • Name of the corresponding author.

*Manuscripts posted on preprint servers, such as medRxiv, may be submitted. However, if the manuscript is published in the Journal of Respiratory Infections, the authors must update the preprint posting to reflect the article's new status and link to the published version.

Manuscript structure

Submit your manuscript, including tables, figures, appendices, etc., as a single Microsoft Word (.docx) file. The file should contain, in order:

  • Title page

  • Abstract

  • Main text

  • Author contributions

  • Acknowledgements (optional)

  • References

  • Figure(s) and figure legend(s)

  • Table(s) and table legend(s)

The manuscript file should be formatted according to the following specifications:

  • Page size should be 8.5 × 11 inches (US letter).

  • Text should be double-spaced.

  • Use a single-column layout with both left and right margins justified.

  • Do not include headers or footers.

  • Fonts*:

    • Heading 1 (primary heading): Bold 14 pt; Title Case; followed by line break.

    • Heading 2 (secondary heading): Italic 14 pt; Sentence case; followed by line break.

    • Heading 3 (tertiary heading): Bold 12 pt; Sentence case; followed by colon (no line break).

    • Main Body: 12 pt; not bold or italic.

*The JRI uses Palatino and Helvetica, but authors may use any sensible and legible serif or sans serif font when submitting their manuscripts. Other suitable fonts include Times New Roman, Cambria, Arial, and Calibri.

Primary headings should conform to the structure specified for the relevant article type (e.g., for original research: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion). A limited number of secondary (and tertiary if necessary) headings may be added at the author’s discretion.

Examples of appropriate secondary headings in an Original Research manuscript:

Section Examples
Introduction Not typically appropriate
Methods “Study population,” “Inclusion and exclusion criteria,” “Statistical methods”
Results “Baseline characteristics,” “Clinical outcomes and risk factors,” “Microbiological findings.”
Discussion “Strengths,” “Limitations,” “Conclusion”

Examples of appropriate secondary headings in a Case Report:

Section Examples
Introduction Not typically appropriate
Case Description “Initial presentation,” “Laboratory findings,” “Differential diagnosis”
Discussion “Strengths,” “Limitations,” “Conclusion”

The use of tertiary headings is generally to be avoided. However, they may be used in the Methods section for study definitions.

Word, page, figure, table, and reference limits

The Journal of Respiratory Infections has no standardized limits on the number of words, pages, figures, or tables included in manuscripts, nor are authors required to report any of these counts. However, the editors reserve the right to request abbreviation or elaboration on a case-by-case basis.

While there is no limit on the number of references that may be included, authors should take care to avoid redundancy, e.g., citing an excessive number of sources to prove the same point, citing numerous sources without commenting on them, etc.

Title page

The title page (the first page of the main manuscript file) should include the following elements:

  • Title

  • Article type, e.g. Original Research

  • List of authors in the form {First name} {Middle initial(s)} {Last name}{#}, {Post-nominal letters};”, e.g.,

    Jose Bordon1, MD PhD; Forest W. Arnold2, DO MSc

  • List of affiliations in the form “{#}{Sub-department}, {Department}, {Institution}, {City}, {State/Province}, {Country};”, e.g.,

    1George Washington University Medical School, Washington, D.C., USA; 2Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA

  • Funding statement (or “The author(s) received no specific funding for this work”).

  • Conflict of interest statement (or “All authors declared no conflict of interest in relation to the main objective of this work”).

  • Corresponding author contact information (email, telephone, and postal address).


For Original Research and Brief Communications, the abstract should consist of the following sections:

  • Introduction or Background

  • Methods

  • Results

  • Conclusion or Conclusions

This structure may also be used for Review Articles or Brief Reviews if the literature search strategy is described.

Abstracts for clinical trials and systematic reviews should be structured according to CONSORT and PRISMA specifications, respectively.

For case reports, methodologies, and patient management articles, the JRI requires a narrative (unstructured) abstract.

Abstracts are not required for multimedia, editorials, opinion pieces, perspective pieces, or study protocols.

Main text

Reporting of statistical methodology

Manuscripts involving statistical analyses must describe their statistical methodology in the Methods section. At a minimum, the following must be reported:

  • What summary statistics were used to report categorical and continuous variables.

    • For categorical variables, these will be frequency and percentage or frequency, denominator, and percentage, as appropriate.

    • For continuous variables, a measure of location and a measure of spread should be provided. Typically, these will be median and standard deviation for normally distributed data or median and interquartile range for non-normally distributed data.

  • All hypothesis tests used (e.g., chi-squared, Kruskal-Wallis, log-rank).

    • Alpha level of statistical significance (e.g., P<0.05). Alpha levels >0.05 should be justified in the text.
  • Any regression analyses conducted (e.g., multivariate logistic regression, Cox proportional hazards regression).

    • What regression coefficients and confidence/credible intervals were reported (e.g., hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals). Note: confidence intervals must be reported for any regression analysis conducted.

Statistics must be reported in the Results section according to the specifications described in the Methods section. The Journal uses the following formatting conventions:

  • Frequencies and percentages are represented in the form n (%), e.g., “42 (35.3%)”.

  • Frequencies, denominators, and percentages are represented in the form n/denominator (%), “42/119 (35.2%)”.

  • Median and interquartile range are represented in the form median [q1, q3], e.g., “36 [25, 45]”.

  • Mean and standard deviation are represented in the form mean±SD, e.g., “37±12.5”

  • Regression coefficients and their confidence intervals are reported in the form β-type β-value (95% CI lower–upper), e.g., “RR 0.85 (95% CI 0.47–1.51)”.

    • Abbreviations such as “RR” must be given in full on first use, e.g., “relative risk (RR)”.

    • If confidence intervals include negative numbers, use the word “to”, rather than an en-dash “–”, as a delimiter, e.g., “MD 0.1 (-0.05 to 0.25)”.

Referring to figures and tables

References to figures and tables must be in bold and capitalized, e.g., “Figure 1.”

Do not start a sentence with a reference to a table or figure.

Where two tables/figures are referenced simultaneously, conjunction word(s) should not be bold, e.g., “Tables 1 and 2.”

Where more than two consecutive tables/figures are referenced simultaneously, they should be expressed as a range, joined by a bold en-dash, e.g., “Figures 2–4.”

These formats should be combined as appropriate, e.g., “Figures 1, 2, and 5–7.”

In-text citations

Citations should be numbered consecutively by order of appearance in the text; numbers should be given in (square) brackets after the period at the end of the relevant sentence. Citation numbers are not superscripted.

Bordon et al. demonstrated this.[1]

Two or more citations referring to the same sentence should be given together, e.g.,

Two studies have confirmed this.[1, 2]

More than two consecutive citations should be expressed as a range, e.g.,

Three studies have confirmed this.[1-3]

These formats should be combined as appropriate, e.g.,

Five studies have confirmed this.[1, 3, 5-7]

To avoid ambiguity, citations may be given earlier in the sentence if they relate to a particular phrase, e.g.,

Similar studies have found no association with hospital admission [2], invasive ventilation [5-7], or mortality.[8]

If the first (or only) citation of a given source appears in a Table, place the citation at the end of the sentence in which that table is first referred to in the text. For example, if a reference is in Table 3 and has not been referred to any earlier in the text, then the in-text reference should be:

The studies reviewed are displayed in Table 3.[27]

This will preserve numbering in citation management software.


Author contributions

Manuscripts should contain a section listing author contributions. This list is required for editorial purposes but will not be included in the final publication unless duplicated in the Acknowledgements.

Per the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), authors must meet all of the following four criteria:

  1. Made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work.

  2. Drafted the work or revised it critically for important intellectual content.

  3. Gave final approval of the version to be published.

  4. Agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

More details can be found at the ICMJE page for authorship roles. An example of an author contribution statement is:

“FWA had full access to all study data and takes responsibility for the integrity and the accuracy of the analysis. FWA, JB, JAR, RMC, RFB, and RC made substantial contributions to the study design, analysis and interpretation of the data, and writing of the manuscript.”

Contributions to the research or manuscript preparation from anyone who is not an author should be stated in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript with the permission of the contributor in question. Manuscripts must be submitted by one of the authors.

Acknowledgements (optional)

The optional acknowledgments section may include:

  • Financial statements/disclosures consistent with those reported on the title page.

  • Role of the sponsors in the development of the research and manuscript.

  • Other contributions, particularly those that do not qualify the contributor for authorship.


The Journal of Respiratory Infections uses the Clinical Infectious Diseases (CID) citation style, which is available for various citation management software. Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of citations.

The full references must be listed in numerical order at the end of the text. References must conform to the following general rules:

  1. Authors listed as {Last} {F}{M} (e.g., Arnold FW, Bordon J.) in a comma-separated list. In the case of more than six authors, provide the first three, followed by “et al.”

  2. Titles are given in sentence case with no quotation marks or italics.

  3. Journal names should be abbreviated according to Index Medicus.

  4. Year of publication is given in bold.

  5. Volume number and Issue numbers must be included for journal articles.

  6. Page numbers are given as inclusive ranges (or e-locators for certain online articles). If, like the JRI, the articles are numbered, without continuous pagination, give the article number in the form “Article 3”.

  7. If the article has a DOI or PMID, it must be provided in the following format:

  8. The vast majority of references (at least three-quarters of the total as a rule of thumb) should be peer-reviewed sources, typically academic journal articles. This does not include articles from preprint servers, such as medRxiv, which are not peer-reviewed.

  9. Referenced articles should come from reputable journals, preferably those indexed in PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, and/or the Directory of Open Access Journals. At a minimum, the journal must have an ISSN or ISBN. For more information on avoiding predatory publications in the biomedical sciences, see Elmore SA, Weston EH. Predatory journals: What they are and how to avoid them. Toxicol Pathol. 2020; 48(4):607-610. doi:10.1177/0192623320920209. PMID: 32319351.

The following are reference templates and examples for specific types of sources.

Article (Journal)

{author(s)}. {title}. {journal} {year}; {volume}({issue}): {pages}. doi: {DOI}. PMID: {PMID}.

  1. Corey L, Gilbert PB, Juraska M, et al. Two randomized trials of neutralizing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. N Engl J Med 2021; 384(11): 1003–14. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2031738. PMID: 33730454.

  2. Hedlund JU, Örtqvist ÅB, Kalin ME, Giesecke J, Scalia-Tomba G. Risk of pneumonia in patients previously treated in hospital for pneumonia. Lancet 1992; 340(8816): 396–7. doi: 10.1016/0140-6736(92)91473-l. PMID: 1353558.

  3. Kassis C, Durkin M, Holbrook E, Myers R, Wheat L. Advances in diagnosis of progressive pulmonary and disseminated coccidioidomycosis. Clin Infect Dis 2021; 72(6): 968–75. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa188. PMID: 32108231.

Article (Journal) Supplemental Material

  1. Martorell R, Zongrone A. Intergenerational influences on child growth and undernutrition. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2012; 26(Suppl 1):302-14. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3016.2012.01298.x. PMID: 22742617.

  2. Kidney Disease–Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Transplant Work Group. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the care of kidney transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2009; 9(Suppl 3):S1-155. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02834.x. PMID: 19845597.


{author(s)}. {title}. {edition} ed. {place published}: {publisher}, {year}.

  1. Kleinbaum DG, Klein M. Survival analysis: a self-learning text. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Spring, 2015.

  2. Kon K, Rai M. The microbiology of respiratory system infections. 1st ed. Boston, MA: Elsevier, 2016.

Book (Edited Collection)

{editor(s)}, ed(s). {title}. {edition} ed. {place published}: {publisher}, {year}.

  1. Bartlett N, Wark P, Knight D, eds. Rhinovirus infections: rethinking the impact on human health and disease. 1st ed. San Diego: Elsevier, 2019.

Book Chapter/Section

{author(s)}. {title}. In: {editor(s)}, ed(s). {title}. Vol. {volume}. {place published}: {publisher}, {year}:{page range}.

  1. Allison PD. Survival analysis. In: Hancock GR, Mueller RO, eds. The Reviewer’s Guide to Quantitative Methods in the Social Sciences. New York: Routledge, 2010:413–25.

  2. Sandman PM. Hazard versus outrage in the public perception of risk. In: Covello VT, McCallum D, MT P, eds. Effective risk communication: contemporary issues in risk analysis. Vol 4. Boston, MA: Springer, 1989:45–9.

Conference Proceedings

{author(s)}. {title}. In: {conference title}. {conference location}: {publisher}, {year of conference}:{pages}.

  1. Brandeau ML. Infectious disease control policy: A role for simulation. In: Winter Simulation Conference. Miami, FL: IEEE, 2008:1578–82.

  2. Teramoto S. Prevalence Of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) and its relation to aspiration pneumonia in hospitalized pneumonia patients in Japan. In: American Thoracic Society International Conference. New Orleans, LA: American Thoracic Society, 2010: A6168–A6168.

News Article

{author(s)}. {title}. {publication}. {year} {issue Month DD};{section}. {pages}.

  1. Al-Shalchi H. Rain, fears of swine flu threaten Saudi pilgrims. The Courier-Journal. 2009 November 26;World. A7.

News Article (Online)

{author(s)}. {title}. {publication} {year}. Available at: {url}. Accessed {DD Month YYYY}.

  1. Ruberg S, Roland D. Covid-19 variant shot from Sanofi, GSK effective against Omicron. The Wall Street Journal 2022. Available at: https://www.wsj.com/articles/covid-19-variant-shot-from-sanofi-gsk-effective-against-omicron-11656075275. Accessed 27 June 2022.

  2. Smith L. Flu season update: 253 flu-related deaths reported in Virginia this season. The News Leader 2019. Available at: https://www.newsleader.com/story/news/local/2019/12/16/flu-season-update-253-flu-related-deaths-reported-virginia-season/2662535001/. Accessed 25 May 2020.

  3. Roberts A. Stewart County man breathes new life into NICU, COPD treatment. 2017. Available at: https://www.theleafchronicle.com/story/news/local/stewart-houston/2017/03/24/stewart-county-man-breathes-new-life-into-nicu-copd-treatment/99410934/. Accessed 15 May 2020.


{author(s)}. {title}. {server} [Preprint]. {year} doi: {DOI}.

  1. Lai S, Bogoch I, Ruktanonchai N, et al. Assessing spread risk of COVID-19 within and beyond China, January-April 2020: a travel network-based modelling study. medRxiv [Preprint]. 2020 doi: 10.1101/2020.02.04.20020479.


{author(s)}. {title}. {type}. {place published}: {institution}, {year} {date}. Report No.: {report number}.

  1. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Situation Report. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2020 15 April 2020. Report No.: 86.


{author(s)}. {title} [{thesis type}]. {place published}: {university}, {year}.

  1. Cardani A. Alveolar Macrophages Protect Against Lethal Influenza A Virus Pneumonia [PhD Thesis]. Charlottesville (VA): University of Virginia, 2016.


{author(s)}. {title}. Available at: {url}. Accessed {D Month YYYY}.

  1. NYC Health. COVID-19: data. Available at: https://www1.nyc.gov/site/doh/covid/covid-19-data.page. Accessed 8 June 2020.

  2. The Joint Commission. Specifications manual for national hospital inpatient quality measures. Available at: https://www.jointcomission.org/specifications_manual_for_national_hospital_inpatient_quality_measures.aspx. Accessed 15 November 2019.

  3. World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Available at: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/. Accessed 17 May 2020.

Miscellaneous Documents

{author(s) or insitution}. {title}. {place published}: {publisher}, {year}. Available at: {url}. Accessed {D Month YYYY}.

  1. Covello VT, Sandman PM, Slovic P. Risk communication, risk statistics, and risk comparison: a manual for plant managers. Washington, DC: Chemical Manufacturers Association, 1988.

  2. Office of Governor Charlie Baker and Lt. Governor Karyn Polito. March 15 2020 assisted living visitor restrictions order. Available at: https://www.mass.gov/doc/march-15-2020-assisted-living-visitor-restrictions-order. Accessed 25 April 2020.

  3. Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Trump administration issues key recommendations to nursing homes, state and local governments. Available at: https://www.cms.gov/newsroom/press-releases/trump-administration-issues-key-recommendations-nursing-homes-state-and-local-governments. Accessed 23 April 2020.

Figures and tables

Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of figures and tables, including that all content is legible and appropriately spaced. In addition to their inclusion in the manuscript file, the original image files of all figures should be uploaded to the submission system to ensure sufficient quality in publication.


All figures should be labeled in numerical sequence with a descriptive legend. These labels should take the following format:

  1. Figure label in bold (e.g., Figure 1.) followed by a general description in sentence case 12 pt font.

    Figure 1. Forest plot showing results of multivariate logistic regression for mortality outcome.

  2. Alphabetical, semicolon-separated list of any abbreviations used in the figure.

    Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; ICU, intensive care unit; OR, odds ratio.


All tables should be labeled in numerical sequence with a descriptive legend.

  1. Table label in bold followed by a general description in sentence case 12 pt font.

    Table 1. Baseline descriptive statistics stratified by blood group.

  2. Alphabetical list of any abbreviations used in the table.

    Abbreviations: AKI, acute kidney injury; CVD, cardiovascular disease; ICU, intensive care unit.

  3. Applicable footnotes placed beneath the table in 12 pt font.

    *Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding.
    Median [IQR].

Place figure and table captions below and above the content to which they refer, respectively.

Request assistance

If you require assistance preparing or submitting your manuscript, please contact Alex Glynn, Managing Editor, at alex.glynn@louisville.edu. We are fortunate enough to receive submissions from all over the world, and we offer complementary proofreading services to authors for whom English is a second language.