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The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Abstract

Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), famously known as COVID-19, has quickly become a global pandemic. Chest X-ray (CXR) imaging has proven reliable, fast, and cost-effective for identifying COVID-19 infections, which proceeds to display atypical unilateral patchy infiltration in the lungs like typical pneumonia. We employed the deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) ResNet-34 to detect and classify CXR images from patients with COVID-19 and Viral Pneumonia and Normal Controls.

Methods: We created a single database containing 781 source CXR images from four different international sub-databases: the Società Italiana di Radiologia Medica e Interventistica (SIRM), the GitHub Database, the Radiology Society of North America (RSNA), and the Kaggle Chest X-ray Database for COVID-19 (n = 240), Viral Pneumonia (n = 274), and Normal Controls (n = 267). Images were resized, normalized, without any augmentation, and arranged in m batches of 16 images before supervised training, testing, and cross-validation of the DCNN classifier.

Results: The ResNet-34 had a diagnostic accuracy as of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the true-positive rate versus the false-positive rate with the area under the curve (AUC) of 1.00, 0.99, and 0.99, for COVID-19 and Viral Pneumonia patient and Normal control CXR images; respectively. This accuracy implied identical high sensitivity and specificity values of 100, 99, and 99% for the three groups, respectively. ResNet-34 achieved a success rate of 100%, 99.6%, and 98.9% for classifying CXR images of the three groups, with an overall accuracy of 99.5% for the testing subset for diagnosis/prognosis.

Conclusions: Based on this high classification precision, we believe the output activation map of the final layer of the ResNet-34 is a powerful tool for the accurate diagnosis of COVID-19 infection from CXR images.

Funder

The authors received no specific funding for this work.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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