The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections


The authors received no specific funding for this work



Even though the proportional burden of COPD among never-smokers is significant in both developing and developed nations, accounting for around 30% of all COPD in the community, there is little awareness of the prevalence of COPD in this population. Understanding the molecular processes that underlie COPD in nonsmokers is essential.


Dataset (GSE146560) was acquired from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). The limma and clusterProfiler software tools were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and conduct a functional enrichment analysis respectively.


In all, 10,583 DEGs were found, of which 1,065 were up-regulated and 9,518 were down-regulated. The KEGG pathways such as Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, taste transduction, maturity onset diabetes of the young, Hippo signaling pathway, insulin secretion, dilated cardiomyopathy, morphine addiction, and calcium signaling pathway were mainly enriched in the DEGs, along with pathways for the Byzantine Arch palate, inflammation, infection, and feeding difficulties.


Particularly downregulated COPD genes such FBXL19-AS1, KRTAP5-AS1, and HAGLR antisense are identified as COPD biomarkers and may play a role in the pathogenesis of the illness. However, more investigation is required to support this study's conclusions.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

1261-supplement.pdf (544 kB)
Supplemental tables

1261-supplement2.csv (553 kB)
Supplemental .csv file



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.