Journal of Wellness


The author(s) received no specific funding for this work.

Conflict of Interest

The author(s) have no conflict of interest to declare for tis work.


Introduction: The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) introduced additional stress to the baseline occupational stressors of emergency care workers. The objectives of this study were to evaluate perceived stress and burnout and the utilization and perceived benefit of wellness practices among emergency healthcare workers (EHCWs), including: emergency physicians, advanced practice providers (APPs), nurses, and departmental administrative staff during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: A cross-sectional 28-item electronic survey of EHCWs at three hospitals in a major United States city was used to measure participants’ utilization and perceived benefit of wellness practices, burnout (2-item measure), overall stress (perceived stress scale), and stress related to COVID-19.

Results: The sample consisted of 260 respondents (response rate 44.6%, 583 eligible). Over one-half (56.5%) reported burnout from their job and a majority (58.5%) reported moderate to high stress. Wellness activities including regular exercise and engaging in hobbies were associated with lower reports of burnout. Higher stress levels were reported by participants who had tested positive for COVID-19. Nurses reported the highest rates of burnout overall (80.6%). Females reported higher rates of burnout than males across the cohort (64.5 vs 41.9%, p = 0.001), and female APPs reported significantly higher burnout than did male APPs (69.2 vs 38.5%, p = 0.048). Participants reported donated personal protective equipment (PPE) and meals on shift were extremely helpful.

Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic was a significant contributor to the stress of EHCWs. Regular engagement in wellness activities was associated with lower rates of burnout. The benefit of engagement in wellness practices, both individual practices and organizational interventions are paramount to mitigate stress and burnout in EHCWs.





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