Date on Master's Thesis/Doctoral Dissertation


Document Type

Master's Thesis

Degree Name



Epidemiology and Population Health

Degree Program

Epidemiology, MSE

Committee Chair

Taylor, Kira

Committee Member

Baumgartner, Kathy

Committee Member

DeMarco, Daniel

Author's Keywords

COVID-19; depression; anxiety; Kentucky; mortality


Previous studies have shown that mental disorders affect COVID-19 mortality. This study investigated the effect of depression and/or anxiety on COVID-19 outcomes. Depression/anxiety was defined by actively taking medication and/or diagnosis. The outcomes were ICU admission; ventilation; mortality; and time to mortality. Of 698 hospitalized patients, there were 204 (29%) defined to have either depression or anxiety. There were 109 deaths, and of those, 52 (48%) were diagnosed with depression/anxiety. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine associations. ICU admission and ventilation were not significantly associated with depression/anxiety. Depression/anxiety was associated with mortality (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.15-2.93, p: 0.01) and time to mortality (HR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.07-2.39, p: 0.02), adjusting for age, sex, and history of COPD. The association seemed driven by patients who were never admitted to the ICU. This study showed that depression/anxiety has a significant effect on COVID-19 mortality.

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